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rayleighconnect™ collects many electrical energy parameters. One of them is voltage.

What is voltage?

Voltage refers to the electrical potential difference between two points in an electrical circuit, typically measured in volts (V). Alternating current (AC) is the standard form of electrical power transmission and distribution used in European grids. AC voltage in European grids typically operates at a frequency of 50 Hz, as opposed to 60 Hz in many other regions like North America.

Voltage values

The voltage in European AC grids varies depending on the specific application and the location within the grid. For example:

  • Transmission Voltage: The voltage level used for long-distance transmission of electricity across the grid is typically very high to minimize energy losses during transmission. In Europe, transmission voltages can range from 110 kV (kilovolts) to 800 kV or even higher in some cases.

  • Distribution Voltage: Voltage is stepped down at substations closer to end-users for distribution through local power lines. Common distribution voltages in European grids include 11 kV, 22 kV, and 33 kV for medium voltage distribution, and 230 V or 400 V for low voltage distribution to homes and businesses.

  • Industrial and Commercial Voltage: In industrial and commercial settings, voltage requirements can vary depending on the equipment and machinery being used. Higher voltages may be required for heavy machinery and industrial equipment.


European AC grids adhere to standards set by organizations like the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) to ensure compatibility and safety across different countries within the European Union (EU) and other European regions. These standards dictate parameters such as voltage levels, frequency, and safety measures to maintain reliability and efficiency in the electrical grid.